Wednesday, July 10, 2013

Visualizing a tiny slice of India's demographics with information from Wikipedia


This post presents a tiny slice of a complex and diverse India using charts. (Data retrieval from Wikipedia on 9 July, 2013 and the analysis were performed using R; charts were generated using ggplot2, googleVis and wordcloud. More information can be found in the code used for this analysis at github.)

Present information regarding the following visually, using charts.
1. Official languages, sex ratio, percentage (or ratio) of urban to total population and literacy rates across different states and union territories (UTs) of India.
2. Different religions of the country and demographic variables, such as literacy rates and sex ratios.

Data on variables with respect to states and UTs were downloaded from this page on Wikipedia (tables related to States and Union Territories of India). Data on different religions and demographic variables were downloaded from this page on Wikipedia (table 2, Census Information for 2001). Since these pages can be changed, a copy of these have been downloaded and a pdf version of both pages can be found in this document.

The following tables were arrived at after data were cleaned. (You can click on the header of any column to arrange the table based on that column.)

States and Union Territories of India (with some demographic information)

Religions in India (with some demographic information)

Visualizing Demographics

Let's focus on the data presented in the first table above.

Literacy Rate (in %) of different states and UTs
(You can hover over the map to get corresponding values)
   You can click on the graph below regarding literacy rates to enlarge it.
Sex Ratio of different states and UTs
It is a measure of number of females to 1000 males.

(You can hover over the map to get corresponding values)
You can click on the graph below regarding sex ratio to enlarge it
Urban to Total Population Percent in Different States
(You can hover over the map to get corresponding values)

You can click on the graph below regarding Urban to Total Population Percent to enlarge it
Number of Official Languages in different States and UTs (graph can be clicked to enlarge)
Which Languages are more popular (are designated as an "Official Language" by different states and UTs)? (Graph and wordcloud can be clicked to enlarge them)
Relationship between Sex Ratio, Urban To Total Population Percent,  Literacy Rate, and Number of Official Languages - These graphs can be clicked to enlarge them. 

For scaling purposes in the graph below, Sex Ratio was divided by 10, making it number of females to 100 males. In response to a comment (see below), it is to be clarified that the states in the graph below were arranged in increasing order of sex ratio (Daman and Diu was lowest and Kerala was highest.)

Correlation Matrix

The correlation coefficients do not attain significance at an alpha of .05, suggesting that there is no relationship between these variables.

Religion and Demographics

Let's take a brief look at data from the religion and demographics table in the two graphs below. (The graphs can be clicked to enlarge them.) For scaling purposes, in both graphs below, Sex Ratio related variables were divided by 10, making these variables number of females to 100 males.



  1. Great post. Appreciate the time to put it together, we need more examples like this floating around with the code available for people beginning to dabble with these vis tools ^_^

    1. I am new to these tools myself and have learned a lot from the code of other more experienced folks. Good luck.

  2. Great!!! Never knew about googleVIS. Some thoughts:
    States in Y-axis may be put in some order (alphabetical?)

    The size, color and/or shape may be customized for additional information. For example the graph on literacy rates could have the size of the dots to reflect sex ratio and dot color to give urbanization. I always found such combinations offer much more information.

    1. Good points. One, States were arranged in a certain sequence in all graphs... if you were referring to the plot with literacy rate, sex ratio and other vars versus State, the States were arranged by increasing order of Sex ratio (Kerala highest and Daman and Diu lowest)...this wasn't explicit in my explanation. It has been modified in the post. Second,true, the size of dots and their color can also be used to add two other dimensions, similar to what was done in the Religion and Demographics-I graph above. This used two categorical vars on the x- and y-axes and what you are suggesting would have one of these axes as continuous, the other being State. Decided to keep them simple. I think, at times, there may be a trade-off between ease of understanding and density of information presented and I went with the former.

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